Of the secular world, rights, scat, MSM and homophobic bigots.

Secularists claim that  the Universal Declaration of  Human Rights  (UDHR)  gives  Men who have  Sex with Men (MSM)   rights  to scat by way of  privacy.

According  to them  persons  who  do  not  support these  rights  are homophobic  bigots.

 

 

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Gay Pride San Francisco

secularists –  “Up your Alley”

 

http://www.hardcell.org.uk/en/playroom/scat/

SCAT

Scat / Things to know

Also known in personal ads and internet profiles as:

brown
dirty (as in ‘into dirty’)
scatology.
Hanky code

Brown worn:

on the left (wants to dump on you)
on the right (wants to be dumped on).
What is scat?

Scat involves playing with shit, smearing it on your or his body, and sometimes eating it. It can also mean just getting off on seeing another guy dump his load.

‘Farming’ is taking shit from public toilets to play with.

What’s the attraction?

Taboos around cleanliness couldn’t be more powerfully broken by shit play: it’s everything we’ve been told not to do since childhood.

Men can be drawn to scat precisely because it provokes such a strong negative reaction in others. Lovers of scat might get a kick from stepping over what for most people is the line between what’s OK and what’s too extreme. Scat is perhaps the ultimate in sex without limits or inhibitions.

Privately we’re often fascinated by our own bowel movements and excrement. Scat lets men explore and share this interest and enjoy a special bond with other lovers of shit.

For scat fans shit can excite all the senses with its warmth, texture, smell, colour and possibly taste. Just like contact with the intimate body fluids of cum, spit or piss, sex involving shit can be a sign of intense closeness as someone is offering something that’s come from deep inside them. And in an intense power play scene, nothing is more symbolic of degradation, humiliation and control than exposure to faeces.

Last review: 25/09/2014
Next review: 31/09/2017

 

dorsal_nudity.jpg.size.xxlarge.letterbox

secularists – Gay Pride

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The “utterly fascist, utterly Stalinist” neocolonial, imperialist, anti-free speech, thought – policing, Taliban Gaystapo in Jamaica and a response.

 

“Take sleep and mark death “

… Jamaican proverb…

The Jamaican proverb means that one should not allow oneself to be surprised by future developments because it is possible to predict what will happen in the future by paying attention to what takes place in the present.

The descriptions above are terms some have used to describe the LGBT lobby in the USA, UK and Canada.

Lesbian atheist Professor Camille Paglia used the term ” utterly fascist, utterly Stalinist” when LGBT activists in the USA sought to remove Duck Dynasty star Phil Robertson from the show when he stated that the Bible teaches that marriage is between a man and a woman.

Alan Craig , an Anglican leader in the UK described the LGBT political agenda as similar to that of the NAZI Gestapo, referring to the LGBT political lobby as the “Gaystapo”

The letter below shows what the Gaystapo would like to do in Jamaica.

 

 

http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20141021/letters/letters3.html

Keep Church Out Of Legislation
Published: Tuesday | October 21, 2014 6 Comments
THE EDITOR, Sir: Despite not formally being part of the committee tasked with reviewing the Sexual Offences Act, the presence and force of the ‘Church’ can be felt.

The Jamaica Coalition for a Healthy Society (JCHS) is a group of professed Christians who wish to remedy all of Jamaica’s problems by vilifying a group of persons, who by virtue of their decision to honour self, have been accused of waging war against a heaven-sent code.

JCHS’ opposition to any discourse that implies a level of fairness and non-discrimination for all persons of interest in that piece of legislation tends to be based solely on the meagre premise of Christian morality. That is especially so because their arguments, to which they are entitled, are asinine and archaic.

Christian morality, however widespread, has no place in a legal discussion on what are essentially human rights. The ‘fact’ that Christianity and homosexuality are irreconcilable [is subject to debate] has no relevance, and therefore, an actual member of the committee has no place acquiescing.

As such, what JCHS identifies as Judeo-Christian values is not only self-serving but also volatile. You cannot propose to enrich the social, spiritual, physical, emotional, and mental health of the society by imprisoning persons for their private affairs. Love and hate can never be friends.

Yohan Lee

yohan.s.r.lee@live.com

 

 

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http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20141022/letters/letters6.html

Anti-Church Rant Smacks Of Fascist Arrogance
Published: Wednesday | October 22, 2014 2 Comments
THE EDITOR, Sir: I write in response to Yohan Lee’s letter titled ‘Keep Church out of legislation’ (Gleaner, October 21, 2014).

The author is clearly not informed about the workings of a plural democracy. Jamaica is neither a theocracy nor an atheistic state. Jamaican is a plural democracy whose laws are substantially constructed on the Judaeo-Christian world view. All laws must necessarily be constructed within some world view.

If the author, or anyone else, wishes policymakers to use another world view to make law in a plural democracy, the burden is on him to show that that world view will produce better outcomes for the common good.

Ideas must contend, and the way to defeat an idea is to present a better one. This Mr Lee does not.

Mr Lee clearly thinks there is no need for him to present such an analysis. Instead, he resorts to abuse. The tone of his letter indicates that he believes that based solely on who he is, his position is superior to that of the Church and must be adopted.

The writer’s request to have the views of the Church – a large body of citizens – removed from discussion on public policy, and his self-acknowledged superior intellectual approach imposed on public policy, smacks of arrogance and fascism. This fascist approach to public policy is no surprise and is typical of the LGBT agenda.

Jamaicans, beware, take sleep and mark death.

WAYNE WEST (Dr)

wayne_west@hotmail.com

 

Up your Alley –  Secular  morals  on the streets

Gay Pride San Francisco

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Exposing stupidity : Judge Juan Pérez-Giménez plays the role of the intelligent man in the US judicial system.

”  Sometimes  the role  of  the intelligent  man is  simply  to point  out  the obvious”

….   George  Orwell  …

 

 

While  many  of  the judges  in the US system seem  to  think   that  

  male  +  male       =      male  + female  =        female  + female

i.e           5    +  5             =          5  +  10             =          10  +  10

Judge Juan Pérez-Giménez  disagrees . 

 

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http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2014/10/21/3582742/federal-judge-upholds-marriage-discrimination-in-angry-rant-against-equality/

BREAKING: Federal Judge Rules Against Marriage Equality, Mocks Other Judges In Angry Diatribe
BY IAN MILLHISER POSTED ON OCTOBER 21, 2014 AT 10:05 PM

 

 

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In an opinion that frequently crosses the line from visible rage to outright belligerence towards his judicial colleagues, a federal judge in Puerto Rico became one of just two federal judges to deny equal marriage rights to same-sex couples on Tuesday. Judge Juan Pérez-Giménez’s opinion accuses the overwhelming majority of federal judges who have sided with marriage equality of “inexplicable contortions of the mind or perhaps even willful ignorance.” At one point he appears to mock his colleagues, claiming that while the supposed fact that “this Court reaches its decision by embracing precedent may prove disappointing . . . there are some principles of logic and law that cannot be forgotten.” At another point, he claims that, if gay couples enjoy the same rights as straight couples, that will lead to a world where “laws barring polygamy, or, say the marriage of fathers and daughters” are “now of doubtful validity.”
The concluding section of Judge Pérez-Giménez’s opinion reads less like a judicial opinion than it does like a press release from the anti-gay National Organization for Marriage:
Recent affirmances of same-gender marriage seem to suffer from a peculiar inability to recall the principles embodied in existing marriage law. Traditional marriage is “exclusively [an] opposite-sex institution . . . inextricably linked to procreation and biological kinship,” Windsor, 133 S. Ct. at 2718 (Alito, J., dissenting). Traditional marriage is the fundamental unit of the political order. And ultimately the very survival of the political order depends upon the procreative potential embodied in traditional marriage.
Those are the well-tested, well-proven principles on which we have relied for centuries.
Notice the citation in this passage. Judge Pérez-Giménez relies on a quote from Justice Samuel Alito’s dissenting opinion in United States v. Windsor. Dissenting opinions are, by definition, not the law because they reflect the views of the judges or justices who were unable to persuade a majority of their colleagues. Alito, in fact, was unable to persuade any of his fellow justices to join his opinion in full, although Justice Clarence Thomas did join parts of it.
Despite the angry and, at times, outright vicious rhetoric that pervades his opinion, Pérez-Giménez relies on a narrow technicality to dismiss the plaintiffs’ plea for equal treatment. Although the Supreme Court currently has a great deal of discretion over which cases it wants to take and which cases it will simply pass over, the Court’s mandatory jurisdiction — i.e. those cases that it has no choice but to decide — used to be much larger. Under the previous legal regime, the justices would sometimes get rid of a case within their mandatory jurisdiction that they did not want to hear by proclaiming that the case did not present a “substantial federal question.” That’s what the Court did in a 1972 marriage equality case called Baker v. Nelson.
Few judges believe, however, that Baker v. Nelson has any bearing on whether federal courts may consider marriage equality cases today. Indeed, Pérez-Giménez acknowledges this fact with a lengthy citation to other court decisions holding that Baker is no longer binding on lower courts. The list of cases that disagree with him is so long that it takes up nearly an entire page of his opinion.
So, while Pérez-Giménez clearly holds very passionate views on the question of whether same-sex couples are entitled to the same rights as everyone else, his views are unlikely to persuade many of his fellow judges. It’s even possible that his opinion could ultimately wind up bolstering the case for marriage equality. That’s because his decision will appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, a court dominated by Democratic appointees (although, it is worth noting that Pérez-Giménez was appointed to the bench by President Jimmy Carter). All four of the states that comprise the First Circuit — Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island — are already marriage equality states, so a decision out of a federal court in Puerto Rico is the only path to bring a marriage equality case before this circuit.
Given the makeup of the First Circuit, the overwhelming consensus among federal judges in favor of marriage equality, and the belligerent tone of Pérez-Giménez’s opinion, it is unlikely that his decision will be upheld on appeal.
Tags: ConstitutionJudiciaryMarriage EqualityPuerto Rico

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Brain dead! Laws and rights with the free will of a bowl of sugar.

 

“The reality is, not only do we have no more free will than a fly or a bacterium, in actuality we have no more free will than a bowl of sugar. The laws of nature are uniform throughout, and these laws do not accommodate the concept of free will”.

….. Anthony R Cashmore …

 

Utter  incoherence  appears  to  be  a  status  symbol  of  intellectualism  these  days.

Some   recommend   that  societies  should   be   secular (atheist)    –  having  no  reference  to  the  transcendent –  but  nonetheless under  the  rule of   Law. 

The  concept  is  utterly  foolish.

If  there  is  no  transcendent (God)  and   we  are  totally  material , wholly  the  products  of  physics  and  chemistry , we  are  fully  determined  by  our  chemical  reactions  and  can  have  no  free  will.

We  can   therefore  only  and , will  only  do  what  our  chemistry  dictates.

If   this  is  true   our  legal  system  is  a  farce  and  must  be  discarded.

There  can  be  no  morality  or  illegality .  Things  simply  are.

Concepts  such  as  tolerance  will  also  be  incoherent  as  persons  can  only  do , think  and  agree  with  what  their  chemistry  dictates; they  have  no  choice  in the matter.

Human  beings  can   have   no  more   “rights”  than  a  zebra or  a  starving  lion  has  in

the context  of  the  hunt.   There  can  be   no  moral  or  metaphysical  value  to  the 

outcome ; result  is   simply  chemistry. 

Attempts  to  introduce  the concepts  of  rights  will  be   purely  utilitarian and  must 

depend  entirely  on power  as  there  can  be  no  transcendent  principle to inform them.

Anthony  Cashmore  discusses  the  issue  of  free  will (or  lack  thereof) and  its  implications at   http://www.pnas.org/content/107/10/4499.long

 

 

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The Lucretian swerve: The biological basis of human behavior and the criminal justice system

  1. Anthony R. Cashmore1

+ Author Affiliations


  1. Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018
  1. Contributed by Anthony R. Cashmore, January 12, 2010 (sent for review September 9, 2009)

Abstract

It is widely believed, at least in scientific circles, that living systems, including mankind, obey the natural physical laws. However, it is also commonly accepted that man has the capacity to make “free” conscious decisions that do not simply reflect the chemical makeup of the individual at the time of decision—this chemical makeup reflecting both the genetic and environmental history and a degree of stochasticism. Whereas philosophers have discussed for centuries the apparent lack of a causal component for free will, many biologists still seem to be remarkably at ease with this notion of free will; and furthermore, our judicial system is based on such a belief. It is the author’s contention that a belief in free will is nothing other than a continuing belief in vitalism—something biologists proudly believe they discarded well over 100 years ago.

Many discussions about human behavior center around the relative importance of genes and environment, a topic often discussed in terms of nature versus nurture. In concentrating on this question of the relative importance of genes and environment, a crucial component of the debate is often missed: an individual cannot be held responsible for either his genes or his environment. From this simple analysis, surely it follows that individuals cannot logically be held responsible for their behavior. Yet a basic tenet of the judicial system and the way that we govern society is that we hold individuals accountable (we consider them at fault) on the assumption that people can make choices that do not simply reflect a summation of their genetic and environmental history. As de Duve has written, “If … neuronal events in the brain determine behavior, irrespective of whether they are conscious or unconscious, it is hard to find room for free will. But if free will does not exist, there can be no responsibility, and the structure of human societies must be revised” (1).

It is my belief that, as more attention is given to the mechanisms that govern human behavior, it will increasingly be seen that the concept of free will is an illusion, and the fallacy of a basic premise of the judicial system will become more apparent. Certainly, the determination of the sequence of the human genome and the assignment of function to these genes is having a dramatic effect on our understanding of the role of genetics in human behavior. Similarly, developments in imaging techniques, allowing changes in neuronal activity to be correlated with thought processes, is affecting our thinking about relationships between the functioning of the mind and chemical activity in the brain. Here I propose that the time is opportune for society to reevaluate our thinking concerning the concept of free will, as well as the policies of the criminal justice system.

The Biological Basis of Behavior

At birth, the brain of a child contains about 100 billion neurons, each one forming on average about 1,000 synapses. With time, the majority of these neurons are lost, and the properties of the remaining neurons and their connections reflect a combination of both the genetics and the experiences of the individual from the time of conception. This information is translated into action via the motor neurons, joined to the muscles and the glands of the body, using a mechanism of both electrical and chemical transmission. Despite the essentially unlimited theoretical capacity of the brain to store and use information—enough to confer individual personalities to multiple billions of individuals—one still hears a sense of certainty that “surely I am more complicated than that!”

Descartes and the Magic of the Soul

At least as long ago as the early Greek civilization, people have worried about the compatibility or otherwise of the laws of nature and the apparent capacity of mankind to make conscious decisions that are not simply a reflection of their makeup and the surrounding environment. As noted by Dennett (2), the Epicureans, in attempting to reconcile the phenomenon of cause and effect that they saw to be characteristic of the physical world, with the contrasting apparent freedom of individual behavior, posed the following problem: “If all movement is always interconnected, the new arising from the old in a determinate order—if the atoms never swerve so as to originate some new movement that will snap the bonds of fate, the everlasting sequence of cause and effect—what is the source of the free will possessed by living things throughout the earth?” As described by Lucretius, their reconciliation of this problem was to propose that atoms occasionally exhibit “random swerves” (3). The causal component of these random swerves could have been the Greek gods, of whom there was no shortage. Indeed, the self consistency of this line of thinking can be seen in early Greek literature, where the gods had a daily impact on the lives of individuals (4).

In the 17th century, Descartes, in addressing what is often referred to as the mind—body problem, proposed that the body obeyed the laws of the physical world, however the soul (and hence the mind), acting through the pineal gland, was not restricted by these limitations (5). The mechanism by which this was achieved was, understandably, not understood, although Descartes offered some suggestions. In reference to this problem, Eccles, in an imaginative proposal, has suggested that the interaction between mind and soul could proceed via the uncertainty of quantum mechanics (6). He achieves the capacity to “swerve atoms” — a requirement for free will (as noted by Epicurus)—by taking the “magic of the soul,” afforded by the dualism of Descartes, and combining it with Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

Whereas this so-called Cartesian duality, at least superficially, provides a nice mechanism whereby one could entertain the concept of free will, belief in this mechanism among scientific circles has ostensibly disappeared (7). However, if we no longer entertain the luxury of a belief in the “magic of the soul,” then there is little else to offer in support of the concept of free will. Whereas much is written claiming to provide an explanation for free will, such writings are invariably lacking any hint of molecular details concerning mechanisms (8). Also, it is often suggested that individuals are free to choose and modify their environment and that, in this respect, they control their destiny. This argument misses the simple but crucial point that any action, as “free” as it may appear, simply reflects the genetics of the organism and the environmental history, right up to some fraction of a microsecond before any action.

Genes, Environment, and Stochasticism: A Trinity of Forces Governing Biological Systems

If our genes and environment govern our actions, does this mean that our behavior is deterministic? Not necessarily. Rather, there is a trinity of forces —genes, environment, and stochasticism (GES)—that governs all of biology including behavior, with the stochastic component referring to the inherent uncertainty of the physical properties of matter. Schrodinger popularized the notion that the randomness that physicists were familiar with at the level of individual atoms, was apparently lacking in biological systems (9). Whereas biological systems may have evolved mechanisms to minimize some features of randomness, it is my contention that in contrast to this philosophy, other aspects of the complexity of living systems actually reflect selection in favor of random events.

Examples in support of this notion are the process of mutation (which Schrodinger was aware of), and genetic recombination and assortment; other examples are genetic rearrangement associated with the development of the immune system, and the process of X-chromosome inactivation. Recently there have been numerous reports demonstrating a stochastic response at the level of transcription (10). Variations among individuals of isogenic lines, often ascribed to developmental noise, also likely reflect this stochasticism; similarly, the phenomena of penetrance and expressivity are also likely due to stochastic processes that are normally minimized in the wild type and are uncovered in mutants. Of particular relevance to this article, the formation of neuronal connections reflects a degree of stochasticism, with no two individuals, even those that are genetically identical and under constant environment, displaying the identical neuronal network (11). Hence, the popular debate concerning the relative importance of genes and environment on behavior, is commonly inadequate for two reasons: both because it ignores the question of responsibility (or lack of) and because of the additional stochastic component that influences biology (12). A common practice in behavioral studies involving genetically identical twins is to ascribe any differences (a lack of concordance) to environmental factors—clearly, if one accepts a role for stochasticism, this conclusion is not necessarily correct, as aptly noted by Goodman (13). Rather, differences in genetically identical twins may reflect not only environmental factors but also biological stochasticism.

The introduction of stochasticism would appear to eliminate determinism. However there are three additional points that need to be addressed here. The first point is that, at least in some instances, what at first glance may appear to be stochastic might simply reflect microenvironmental differences and may not be the direct consequence of some inherent stochastic property of atomic particles. The second point is that some physicists, for example ’t Hooft (14), do not necessarily accept the apparent unpredictability associated with the quantum mechanical view of matter (It was concern about this unpredictability that prompted Einstein to offer the viewpoint that “God does not play dice”). Finally, even if the properties of matter are confirmed to be inherently stochastic, although this may remove the bugbear of determinism, it would do little to support the notion of free will: I cannot be held responsible for my genes and my environment; similarly, I can hardly be held responsible for any stochastic process that may influence my behavior!

Having now introduced the three forces that govern behavior, it is appropriate, at this rather late stage, to define what is meant by “free will.” Searle has described free will as the belief “that we could often have done otherwise than we in fact did” (15). A difficulty with this definition is that it does not distinguish free will from the variability associated with stochasticism. For this reason, I believe that free will is better defined as a belief that there is a component to biological behavior that is something more than the unavoidable consequences of the genetic and environmental history of the individual and the possible stochastic laws of nature. Here, in some ways, it might be more appropriate to replace “genetic and environmental history” with “chemistry”—however, in this instance these terms are likely to be similar and the former is the one commonly used in such discussions.

Biologists and Free Will

Earlier I noted that, throughout history, philosophers have repeatedly questioned the validity of free will. However, in spite of this and the sparsity of evidence or credible models in support of free will, it has been my experience that relatively few biologists seriously question the concept of free will. This holds in spite of the fact that we live in an era when few biologists would question the idea that biological systems are totally based on the laws of physics and chemistry. For example, in a beautifully lucid account of the origin and complexity of life, de Duve (1) rather critically analyzes the attempts by others to rationalize a belief in free will, but ends with the rather noncommittal thought: “We still know too little about the human mind to affirm categorically that it is a mere animation of neuronal activity lacking the power to affect this activity.” Similarly, Edelman argues that, “… a human being has a degree of free will. That freedom is not radical, however, and it is curtailed by a number of internal and external events and constraints.” (16).

Wilson has argued that, “because the individual mind cannot be fully known and predicted, the self can go on passionately believing in its own free will…. Without it, the mind, imprisoned by fatalism, would slow and deteriorate” (17). Crick proposed a model for free will whereby he addressed the reality concerning our consciousness of free will (18). Concerning the reality of free will in reference to the way we use this concept in society, he contemplated, “….could it not be that our Will only appears to be free?” (18). In an interview shortly before he died, Crick expanded on his disbelief in free will. When asked if “those decisions you’ve just told me about, concerning your scientific choices … were made by underlying mechanical deterministic processes, and the feeling of will is an illusion,” Crick replied, “That’s right. I think it must be deterministic” (19).

Darwin was aware of the implications of his theories concerning evolution in reference to free will as indicated in these notes: “This view should teach one profound humility, one deserves no credit for anything. Nor ought one to blame others” (20).

A willingness, or lack of willingness, to accept the notion of free will is likely to be influenced by several factors, including the following: first, a constant personal awareness of making decisions that have the appearance of being driven by free will; and second, an awareness of the apparent usefulness of the concept, and hence a reluctance to disturb the status quo. In reference to this second possibility, note again the writing of Darwin: “This view will not do harm, because no one can be really fully convinced of its truth, except man who has thought very much, and he will know his happiness lays in doing good and being perfect, and therefore will not be tempted, from knowing every thing he does is independent of himself to do harm.” Robert Wright’s (20) description of this writing of Darwin’s is, “In other words: So long as this knowledge is confined to a few English gentlemen, and doesn’t infect the masses, everything will be all right.”

Some will argue that free will could be explained by emergent properties that may be associated with neural networks. This is almost certainly correct in reference to the phenomenon of consciousness. However, as admirably appreciated by Epicurus and Lucretius, in the absence of any hint of a mechanism that affects the activities of atoms in a manner that is not a direct and unavoidable consequence of the forces of GES, this line of thinking is not informative in reference to the question of free will.

I suspect that we inherit a belief that free will is perfectly logical, and therefore not worthy of questioning. Note that the way we think is influenced by the inheritance of both cultural ideas (memes) as well as genetic material (21), and in some cases, ways of thinking may survive, somewhat in contrast to the logic, or lack of that is associated with that process. The way we in society think about free will (and religion) is likely to be an example of such a process—the line of thinking may have survival value, despite the fact that it is nonsensical and unsupported by any evidence.

Consciousness—Cause or Effect?

I have argued that one of the reasons that it is common to believe in free will is the constant awareness of the capacity to make conscious decisions that appear to causally affect one’s behavior. This relationship is depicted in Fig. 1A, where consciousness, reflecting in part a force WILL, impacts in a causal way the unconscious neural activity of the brain and thus affects behavior. The dilemma here, stressed throughout this article and illuminated in Fig. 1, is that WILL has causal properties (WILL affects behavior) and yet WILL arises in a noncausal way; society “demands” that WILL be “free”—we want to be able to hold people accountable for their actions. Some might argue that there should be an arrow indicating information flow from “unconscious neural activity” to WILL (Fig. 1B). This would provide a causal component for WILL; however, WILL would then lose its “freedom”—it would then simply be a product of GES.

Fig. 1.

Models for the flow of information between unconscious neural activity and conscious thought. In A, the commonly accepted model is shown whereby WILL influences conscious thought and, in turn, unconscious neural activity, to direct behavior. The difficulty with this model is that there is no causal component directing WILL. In B, a causal component for WILL is introduced; however WILL now simply reflects unconscious neural activity and GES (genes, environment, and stochasticism). That is, WILL loses its “freedom.” In C, WILL is dispensed with, and conscious thought is simply a reflection of unconscious neural activity and GES. Conscious thought is now primarily a means of following—more than a means of influencing—the direction of behavior by unconscious neural activity. This subservient role of conscious thought in directing behavior in model C, is indicated by the dotted arrow 2 (contrasting with the solid line for the corresponding arrow in A and B).

One resolution for this dilemma is that consciousness, rather than being a means by which we influence behavior, is simply a mechanism by which we follow unconscious neural activity and behavior. This model is depicted in Fig. 1C, where the causal component of consciousness is the unconscious neural activity of the brain, and this in turn reflects GES; consciousness has no independent impact on behavior. If there is a flow of information from consciousness to unconscious neural activity of the brain (Fig. 1C, arrow 2), then the causal component of this information does not differ in any way from the input information (Fig. 1C, arrow 1).

In keeping with this line of thinking, are studies that indicate that consciousness is something that follows, and does not precede, unconscious neural activity in the brain. In experiments performed by Libet et al., subjects were asked to move a finger (at “will”) and electrophysiological measurements were determined, both for the finger and the brain (22). Activity of the brain preceded finger movement by ≈500 ms. When the participants were asked to record the time of their conscious decision to move their finger, this also preceded finger movement (in keeping with the apparent causal relationship between will and behavior). However, this conscious awareness followed in time, by a full 300 ms, the initial onset of neural activity. Although such experiments are certainly not proof that consciousness is nothing more than a mechanism of following the activity of the brain, the observations are in keeping with this line of thought (23, 24). Furthermore, a more sophisticated version of these experiments has recently been performed whereby neural activity was measured, not by electrophysiological means but by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In these experiments, brain activity was detected in the prefrontal and parietal cortex up to 10 s before subjects were conscious of any decision-making process (25).

Another phenomenon that is consistent with the idea that consciousness plays only a peripheral role in behavior is that of blindsight. Individuals who have suffered damage to the striate cortex of the brain often show varying degrees of blindness; they are not aware of being able to see. However, when such patients are asked to make decisions that are dependent on their visual ability, they clearly demonstrate some capacity to see, even though they are not conscious of it (26). In reference to Fig. 1C, for such blindsight individuals, the pathway from GES to behavior is at least partly functional, even though a lesion in the brain has disrupted the link between the neural basis of vision and conscious awareness. Other behavioral phenomena that indicate a nonessential role for the conscious mind are sleepwalking and some forms of concussion.

I am constantly struck by the anomaly associated with the commonly accepted model of consciousness (depicted in Fig. 1A)—namely, WILL lacks any causal component. This problem of causality was appreciated by the Greeks more than 2,000 years ago; and yet, as far as I can tell (and after “constant” conversations on this topic for more than two decades), this anomaly is appreciated by only a relatively small fraction of my professional colleagues. I have suggested earlier that one of the reasons for the popular acceptance of the notion of free will is the constant awareness of conscious thought processes that seem to affect our behavior. Biologists may have an additional reason for entertaining the possibility that there is a biological basis to free will. In the space of a few decades, biologists have been remarkably successful in providing a molecular and cellular framework for most of the fundamental problems in their field. Examples include the description of DNA as the genetic material, the diversity of the immune system, a molecular genetic basis for development, and a molecular model for circadian behavioral rhythms. It occurs to me that the confidence associated with these successes may contribute to the notion that eventually a molecular basis for free will be forthcoming. However, as noted, there are “causal” difficulties with this line of thinking, as appreciated by the early Greeks and as discussed by some philosophers and biologists.

Concerned that, in reading this article, some may continue to believe that the viewpoints questioning the validity of free will that I have expressed here are those of an uninformed minority, I would like now to quote some thoughts by some of the preeminent thinkers of recent centuries. The famous Scottish philosopher David Hume, in his discussion of Liberty and Necessity, stated that “whatever capricious and irregular actions we may perform, as the desire of showing our liberty is the sole motive force of our actions, we can never free ourselves from the bonds of necessity.” (27). Thomas Huxley stated, “The feeling we call volition is not the cause of the voluntary act, but simply the symbol in consciousness of the stage of the brain which is the immediate cause of the act. Like the steam whistle which signals but doesn’t cause the starting of the locomotive” (28).

In a similar vein Albert Einstein said, “If the moon, in the act of completing its eternal way around the earth, were gifted with self-consciousness, it would be fully convinced that it was traveling its way of its own accord… So would a Being, endowed with higher insight and more perfect intelligence, watching man and his doings, smile about man’s illusion that he was acting according to his own free will” (29).

When we add these quotations to those referred to earlier by Darwin and Crick, it is clear that the willingness of many present-day biologists to rather uncritically accept the notion of free will is not obviously in keeping with the lines of thought expressed by some of the greatest minds of the last three centuries. Questioning the causal anomalies of the popular notions of human behavior is, thankfully, not restricted to the early Greeks!

The Selective Advantage of Consciousness

In discussing free will, Susan Blackmore has noted that “many scientists believe that the real causal factors are all those interacting neurons that do many things including creating a sense of self, and a sense of free will—both of which are illusions” (19). She goes on to say, “I think nature has played this enormous joke on us.” In addressing the same issue, Rita Carter has asked, “If free will is an illusion and each of our actions is determined by unconscious cognitive processes in response to external stimuli, why should our brains delude us into thinking otherwise?” (30). A variation on this question is: what is the evolutionary selective advantage of consciousness? One answer to this question is that consciousness provides us with an apparent sense of responsibility: “Along with the illusion of control, our sense of agency brings the burdens of individual responsibility. Though this may sometimes weigh heavily on us personally, for society as a whole it is hugely beneficial. Our entire morality and judicial system is dependent on everyone accepting that they are agents of their own misdeeds, and those who don’t acknowledge this are—by legal definition—insane. We may not consciously control our own actions, but the cognitive mechanisms that create the illusion that we do keep society functioning” (30). A similar argument has been made by Wegner: “The ability to know what one will do … would seem to be an important human asset…. This preview function could be fundamentally important for the facilitation of social interaction” (23).

I find that the above are attractive explanations for the existence (the selective advantage) of consciousness. Furthermore, I believe that for these to be true, and somewhat in contrast to the above conclusions derived from Libet’s “finger moving experiment,” there must be a mechanism by which consciousness does influence behavior. There must be a flow of information from consciousness to neural activity (Fig. 1C, arrow 2). However, in keeping with the requirement for causality and the necessity to comply with the laws of nature, this flow of information provides nothing other than a product of the input information (Fig. 1C, arrow 1). Although, like any biosynthetic process, the product may be quite distinct from the input material, it is still a direct consequence of these materials. I suggest that consciousness acts on behavior in a similar manner, such as to commonly reinforce the negative effects that are associated with antisocial behavior. Similarly, for some of us, consciousness heightens our desire to listen to music, for example, or to watch or participate in sporting activities. Whereas the impressions are that we are making “free” conscious decisions, the reality is that consciousness is simply a state of awareness that reflects the input signals, and these are an unavoidable consequence of GES. The mechanistic details of these conscious processes are unknown, and remain the major unsolved problem in biology (31).

In summary, then, I believe that free will is clearly an illusion. However, this is not to say that consciousness does not have a function. I believe it does, and from this I assume that it must give rise to an evolutionary selective advantage. Consciousness confers the illusion of responsibility. No wonder the belief in free will is so prevalent in society—the very survival of those “selfish free-will genes” is predicated on their capacity to con one into believing in free will!

A belief in free will is akin to religious beliefs. Indeed, I would argue that free will makes “logical sense,” as long as one has the luxury of the “causal magic” of religion. Neither religious beliefs, nor a belief in free will, comply with the laws of the physical world. However, despite this similarity, although in scientific circles a skeptical viewpoint is very common regarding religious forces and their day-to-day impact on biological systems, it is my observation that similar skepticism is not widely held regarding a belief in free will.

If the existence of free will is so widely accepted and has strong survival value, then why would we want to change it? Because, as a consequence of the advance in our understanding of the molecular basis of human behavior, it will become increasingly difficult to entertain this fallacy that currently has such a strong influence in the way we govern society. As Crick has written in reference to the relationship between human values and scientific knowledge, “To construct a New System of the World we need both inspiration and imagination, but imagination building on flawed foundations will, in the long run, fail to satisfy. Dream as we may, reality knocks relentlessly at the door. Even if perceived reality is largely a construct of our brains, it has to chime with the real world or eventually we grow dissatisfied with it” (18).

The Criminal Justice System

Our understanding of the functioning of the brain and the molecular details that result in individual acts of behavior has implications for the criminal justice system. Furthermore, although it may be relatively easy to critically comment on the popular thinking about free will, it is not quite so easy to introduce alternatives to the notion of free will and responsibility that presently form an integral component of the judicial system. In Anglo-American law, for a person to be found guilty of a crime, he must be aware of his wrongdoing at the time of the crime—he must display mens rea: that is, the mind must be guilty. In certain circumstances, a defendant can be found not guilty by reason of insanity. Rules governing this defense vary according to country and state, but many are based on the M’Naghten rules, which for a claim of insanity, required that: “the party accused was laboring under such a defect of reason, from disease of the mind, as not to know the nature and the quality of the act he was doing; or, if he did know it, that he did not know he was doing what was wrong” (32).

In fact, the successful application of the insanity defense is quite rare, both in the United States and elsewhere. An example where such a defense was not successful concerned the case of Jeffrey Dahmer, who was found guilty and sentenced to 957 years in prison (where he was subsequently murdered) for the death of seventeen young men from 1978 to 1991. Dahmer was a necrophiliac, performing gross sexual acts on the dead bodies, as well as performing frontal lobotomies and boiling their skulls in acid. The rationale for the guilty verdict was that it was claimed that he knew what he was doing was wrong, as evidenced by the fact that he lied to the police about his activities. I raise this case to illustrate two points: First, the legal system assumes a capacity for individuals not only to distinguish between right and wrong, but to act according to those distinctions—that is, an integral component of the legal system is a belief in free will. Furthermore, the legal system assumes that it is possible to distinguish those individuals who have this capacity of free will from those who lack it (32).

To many there is clearly a difficulty—indeed, a disturbing degree of arbitrariness—associated with any decision that evaluates the degree of mental and legal responsibility that accompanies such criminal acts. Indeed, there is extensive and ongoing debate concerning this topic (32). As noted by Lady Barbara Wootton, the British criminologist, “If mental health and ill-health cannot be defined in objective scientific terms that are free of subjective moral judgments, it follows that we have no reliable criterion by which to distinguish the sick from the healthy mind. The road is then wide open … to dispense with the concept of responsibility altogether” (33). And, as argued by the New York psychiatrist Abraham Halpern, “There is no morally sound basis to select a mental disease or defect as a justification for exculpability while excluding other behavioral determinants, such as heredity, poverty, family environment, and cultural deprivation.” (34). And as noted by Wilson and Herrnstein, “The recurrent theme for the concept of responsibility, hence for the appropriateness of punishment, is behavior freely and intentionally engaged in. The difficulty is that this conception places the legal sanction against offensive behavior in direct confrontation with the sciences of human behavior. If society should not punish acts that science has shown to have been caused by antecedent conditions, then every advance in knowledge about why people behave as they do may shrink the scope of criminal law” (35).

A Proposal

If free will is an illusion, then it becomes more difficult to hold people responsible for their actions. I have argued that one of the reasons that individuals have been so reluctant to question the reality of free will is the belief that it would be difficult for society to function under a system in which this concept was abandoned. However, this has not stopped people from speculating about the inadequacies of the present system and alternative possibilities. As argued by Wright, “All told, then, “free will” has been a fairly useful fiction, a rough proxy for utilitarian justice. But all of the time-wasting debates now in progress (Is alcoholism a disease? Are sex crimes an addiction? …) suggest that it is beginning to outlive its usefulness. After another decade or two of biological research, it may be more trouble than it’s worth; and in the meantime, the scope of “free will” may have shrunk considerably” (20). Wright then suggests, as one alternative, that we “….dispense with volition altogether and adopt explicit utilitarian criteria of punishment.”

Progress in understanding the chemical basis of behavior will make it increasingly untenable to retain a belief in the concept of free will. To retain any degree of reality, the criminal justice system will need to adjust accordingly. However, to retain a degree of orderliness in society it will still be necessary to incarcerate individuals found guilty of certain criminal acts. This is rationalized in various ways including the following: To a), protect society; b), protect the offending individuals from society; c), provide such individuals with appropriate psychiatric help; d), act as a deterrent (the act of incarceration and the presence of a criminal code forming part of the environment); and e), alleviate the pain of the victim. The proposal is a pragmatic one, based on the belief that the welfare of society at large is more important than the welfare of the individual offender.

One might ask: How does this proposal differ from the present system? Whereas in some ways, not significantly; in other ways it differs fundamentally. The primary difference would be the elimination of the illogical concept that individuals are in control of their behavior in a manner that is something other than a reflection of their genetic makeup and their environmental history. Furthermore, psychiatrists and other experts on human behavior should be eliminated from the initial judicial proceedings—the role of the jury would be to simply determine whether or not the defendant was guilty of committing the crime; the mental state of the defendant would play no part in this decision. However, if a defendant were found guilty, then a court-appointed panel of experts would play a role in advising on matters of punishment and treatment. This is a system that would hopefully minimize the retributive aspect of criminal law; concerns about this aspect of law, which have probably been around since laws were first introduced, include those expressed by Wootton (33), Menninger (36), and, more recently, Greene and Cohen (37). Also I note that I am not the first to propose that psychiatrists should be excluded from the initial court proceedings; Glueck (38) and Menninger (36), for example, who both had substantially more expertise than I have in this field, long ago made similar suggestions.

Here, at this rather late stage, I should acknowledge that it has been argued by Morse that the question of free will does not form part of the US legal system (39). This being the case, then even though the law assumes that the brain can function as a responsible decision-making machine in a manner that is not simply a reflection of the genetic and environmental input, this assumption is apparently made without actually using the term “free will.” In keeping with this line of thinking, Morse notes, “The law does not treat people generally as non-intentional creatures or mechanical forces of nature. It could not be otherwise.” In response to this, I provide another quotation of Thomas Huxley: “Volition … is an emotion indicative of physical changes, not a cause of such changes … The soul stands to the body as the bell of the clock to the works, and consciousness answers to the sound which the bell gives out when struck…. We are conscious automata.” (28). That is, Huxley believed (as I and many others do) that we are mechanical forces of nature and that, by some mechanism we have evolved the phenomenon of consciousness, which, I would argue, has conferred upon us the illusion of responsibility. Furthermore, I believe that it is time for the legal system to confront this reality—increasingly indicated by studies in both genetics and neurosciences—that we are indeed “mechanical forces of nature.”

Concluding Thoughts

I noted earlier that belief in what I refer to as the magic of the soul and Cartesian dualism has ostensibly disappeared. The emphasis that I now give to “ostensibly” reflects my belief that, in the absence of any molecular model accommodating the concept of free will, I have to conclude that the dualism of Descartes is alive and well. That is, just like Descartes, we still believe (much as we pretend otherwise) that there is a magic component to human behavior. Here I argue that the way we use the concept of free will is nonsensical. The beauty of the mind of man has nothing to do with free will or any unique hold that biology has on select laws of physics or chemistry. This beauty lies in the complexity of the chemistry and cell biology of the brain, which enables a select few of us to compose like Mozart and Verdi, and the rest of us to appreciate listening to these compositions. The reality is, not only do we have no more free will than a fly or a bacterium, in actuality we have no more free will than a bowl of sugar. The laws of nature are uniform throughout, and these laws do not accommodate the concept of free will. Some will argue that once we understand better the mechanistic details that underlie consciousness, then we will understand free will. Whatever the complexities of the molecular details of consciousness are, they are unlikely to involve any new law in physics that would break the causal laws of nature in a nonstochastic way. If I am wrong on this point, then I eagerly await the elucidation of this principle. In the meantime it would be prudent to assume (in keeping with the thoughts of William of Occam, where one always adopts the simplest of competing hypotheses) that any search for some new “Lucretian” law of physics, or some startlingly novel emergent principle, will not be successful.

Many believe that the consequences of a society lacking free will would be disastrous. In contrast, I argue that we do not necessarily need to be pessimistic about confronting a world lacking free will. Indeed, it is quite possible that progress in some of the more vexing sociological problems may be better achieved once we clarify our thinking concerning the concepts of free will and fault. Certainly, crime is a problem that society has much difficulty dealing with, and in the United States we have the highest rate of incarceration in the world (40). For these and other reasons, surely it is inexcusable that in addressing these problems we continue to entertain this fallacious assumption concerning the most basic feature of human behavior.

Finally, I would like to make the following point: In the introductory chapter of many undergraduate texts dealing with biology or biochemistry, it is common to stress (as I have in this article) that biological systems obey the laws of chemistry and physics; as living systems we are nothing more than a bag of chemicals. It is almost with a sense of pride that the authors of such texts may contrast this understanding with the alternative earlier belief in vitalism—the belief that there are forces governing the biological world that are distinct from those that determine the physical world. The irony here is that in reality, a belief in free will is nothing less than a continuing belief in vitalism—a concept that we like to think we discarded well over 100 years ago! It is my concern, that this vitalistic way of thinking about human behavior—a style of thinking that is present throughout our scientific institutions—serves only to hinder what should be a major onslaught on determining the molecular genetic and chemical basis of human behavior.

Acknowledgments

I thank the many colleagues who have participated in discussions on this topic over the years. Particular thanks are given to Eran Pichersky (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI) and to Nancy Bonini and Sally Zigmond (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA) for their comments and support. I also thank the reviewers of this manuscript for their many helpful comments.

Footnotes

  • 1E-mail: cashmore@sas.upenn.edu.
  • Author contributions: A.R.C. wrote the paper.

  • This contribution is part of the special series of Inaugural Articles by members of the National Academy of Sciences elected in 2003.

  • The author declares no conflict of interest.

Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.

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    (2005) A theory of everything? Nature 433:257.

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    (1983) Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activity (readiness-potential). The unconscious initiation of a freely voluntary act. Brain 106:623–642.

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A correction : Only government sanctioned teacher led prayer is banned in public schools.

Testifyingtotruth  has  received  and  accepted correction on the  ban  on  prayer  in  schools  in the  USA. 

There  is  undoubted hostility  to Christianity  in the  US  school  system  however  as  the  author  below  explains  if  hostile school authorities seek  to  restrict  christian religious expression  which is  protected by  the law they  will  lose  in  the  courts.

It  should  also  be noted that  the  case about government sponsored  prayer Engel v. Vitale  was brought by Jewish groups not secularists  or  atheists                                        See: http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engel_v._Vitale

 

secularists expressing hostility to  the  church

NYC76899

 

o-TOPLESS-NUNS-ANTI-GAY-MARRIAGE-PROTEST-PARIS-facebook

 

xxxxx  E N D S  xxxxx

 

http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2014/02/20/true-or-false-students-can-pray-in-public-school-any-time-they-want/

Answer Sheet
True or false: Students can pray in public school any time they want

 

True or false? Students and anybody else in a public school have a right to quietly pray any time they want.

It’s true, but you wouldn’t know it if you listen to lawmakers in Virginia who, according to this Post story, are pushing legislation that would “codify students’ right to pray before, during and after school; organize prayer groups, clubs and events; wear religious clothing or accessories; and express religious viewpoints at school forums.”

Critics oppose the legislation on several grounds; they say that students already have a right to pray quietly whenever they want and to express religious viewpoints in school, and that supporters are seeking to “enshrine” Christianity in public life.

Here’s what true about school prayer, from Charles Haynes, director of the Religious Freedom Education Project at the Newseum, a First Amendment scholar who writes and speaks extensively on religious liberty and religion in American public life.

The claim that public schools are hostile to Christians … isn’t true.

Truth be told, students of all faiths are actually free to pray alone or in groups during the school day, as long as they don’t disrupt the school or interfere with the rights of others. Of course, the right to engage in voluntary prayer or religious discussion does not necessarily include the right to preach to a captive audience, like an assembly, or to compel other students to participate.

Visit public schools anywhere in America today and you’re likely to see kids praying around the flagpole, sharing their faith with classmates, reading scriptures in free time, forming religious clubs, and in other ways bringing God with them through the schoolhouse door each day.

As for celebrating Christmas, students are free to say “Merry Christmas,” give Christmas messages to others, and organize Christmas devotionals in student Christian clubs.

It’s true that some public school officials still misunderstand (or ignore) the First Amendment by censoring student religious expression that is protected under current law. But when challenged in court, they invariably lose.

In fact, contrary to culture-war mythology, there is more student religious speech and practice in public schools today than at any time in the past 100 years.

When politicians demonize the courts for banning God from schools, they count on public confusion about the First Amendment distinction between government speech promoting religion, which the establishment clause prohibits, and student speech promoting religion, which the free-exercise and free-speech clauses protect.

The U.S. Supreme Court has never ruled that kids can’t pray in school. What the Court has done — and continues to do — is to strike down school-sponsored prayers and devotional exercises as violations of religious liberty.

As a result of those decisions, school officials may not impose prayers, or organize prayer events, or turn the school auditorium into the local church for religious celebrations.

Students, however, aren’t the government; they can — and often do — openly pray and share their faith in public schools.

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Lacking a philosophical framework which can define abnormal in a logical manner the secular world is dunce, diseased and depraved.

 

Secularists / Atheists  deny the existence  of God  and  entertain no role  for  the  transcendent  in public  policy.  

In their  world view, expressed  in their  laws  and other public policies , right and wrong , good  and wholesome ,  bad  and  unacceptable  are  determined solely  by  the  bias  and  desires  of  the secular  elite.  

In this  secular world  fisting, felching, farming, scat, anal penetration etc are “normal and  positive”  behaviours  to  which one  has “rights”.  Gender fluidity  is  also normal .

 

Praying  in schools  is unacceptable  and  as  such is banned. 

The  USA, UK, Canada and  other western democracies  are  substantially  atheists / secular nations hence  in the  USA prayer  in schools  is  banned but male homosexuals being intimate on the  streets  is  “normal  and  positive”

Jamaicans  must  be  aware  that  imposition of  secularism as  the  basis  for  laws  and  public  policy  is  a  well  established   objective   of  the LGBT agenda.

xxxx  E N D S  xxxx

 

 

http://www.hardcell.org.uk/en/playroom/felching/

FELCHING

Felching / Things to know

What is felching?

Felching is sucking (usually your own) cum out of someone’s arse, possibly with a straw. It may then include passing the spunk from mouth to mouth.

What’s the attraction?

Many of us are drawn towards tasting or swallowing cum (our own or others). It can mean taking into the body something seen as valued and potent.

Felching can also signify the end of the sex act. This meaning is even stronger if the cum’s been inside the other man as it’s a strong sign of two men joining together in a very intimate, ‘no limits’ way.

A strong, ‘piggy’ erotic charge comes from breaking the taboos around cleanliness and health that come with taking into your mouth something that’s been up another man’s arse.

Last review: 25/09/2014
Next review: 31/09/2017

 

 

 

AIDS. 2013 Nov 13;27(17):2665-78. doi: 10.1097/01.aids.0000432449.30239.fe.
The increase in global HIV epidemics in MSM.
Beyrer C1, Sullivan P, Sanchez J, Baral SD, Collins C, Wirtz AL, Altman D, Trapence G, Mayer K.
Author information
Abstract

Epidemics of HIV in MSM continue to expand in most low, middle, and upper income countries in 2013 and rates of new infection have been consistently high among young MSM. Current prevention and treatment strategies are insufficient for this next wave of HIV spread. We conducted a series of comprehensive reviews of HIV prevalence and incidence, risks for HIV, prevention and care, stigma and discrimination, and policy and advocacy options. The high per act transmission probability of receptive anal intercourse, sex role versatility among MSM, network level effects, and social and structural determinants play central roles in disproportionate disease burdens. HIV can be transmitted through large MSM networks at great speed. Molecular epidemiologic data show marked clustering of HIV in MSM networks, and high proportions of infections due to transmission from recent infections. Prevention strategies that lower biological risks, including those using antiretrovirals, offer promise for epidemic control, but are limited by structural factors including, discrimination, criminalization, and barriers to healthcare. Subepidemics, including among racial and ethnic minority MSM in the United States and UK, are particularly severe and will require culturally tailored efforts. For the promise of new and combined bio-behavioral interventions to be realized, clinically competent healthcare is necessary and community leadership, engagement, and empowerment are likely to be key. Addressing the expanding epidemics of HIV in MSM will require continued research, increased resources, political will, policy change, structural reform, community engagement, and strategic planning and programming, but it can and must be done.

 

 

 

 

Secular values 2

 

 

 

Secular values

 

Normal  and positive secular behaviour

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Gay_Pride_Parade_1

Gay Pride San Francisco

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Of scat and secular values : Jamaicans make wise choice on buggery law !!

 

 

Majority Of Jamaicans Resolute On Keeping Buggery Law Intact
Published: Monday | October 6, 2014 32 Comments

 

GAYWEDDING3

Despite a growing acceptance of same-sex unions across the world, an overwhelming majority of Jamaicans are standing firmly against any attempt to change local laws that make it illegal for men to have sex with men.

According to the results of the latest Gleaner-commissioned Bill Johnson poll, conducted on September 6-7 and 13-14, 91 per cent of Jamaicans believe lawmakers should make no attempt to repeal the controversial buggery law, which makes it a criminal offence for persons to engage in anal sex.

The poll, which involved interviews with 1,208 residents of Jamaica, has a margin of error of plus or minus three per cent.

Of all the questions asked in relation to homosexuality, it was on the repeal of the anti-sodomy law that respondents were most strident.

Only five per cent felt the law should be abolished and just four per cent said they did not know.

The findings are likely to leave the local homosexual community crestfallen and could serve as a signal to legislators whenever Prime Minister Portia Simpson Miller makes good on her commitment to have Parliament engage in a conscience vote on whether or not to repeal the buggery act.

Simpson Miller first indicated it was time for a review of the buggery law when, as opposition leader, she took part in a leadership debate on the eve of the December 2011 general election.

Simpson Miller, who said her administration would be committed to the protection of human rights, has, almost three years later, yet to bring the vote to Parliament.

But with the administration admitting it was focusing more on crime and the economy during its first three years, events in the months before Johnson’s team went into the field have fuelled anti-gay sentiment before a vote can come.

Earlier this year, a public relations nightmare resulted for gay-rights proponents when it was revealed that the Caribbean Vulnerable Communities (CVC) Coalition authored a letter it claimed was signed by at least 35 groups across the region, urging the University of the West Indies to fire Professor Brendan Bain as head of the Caribbean HIV/AIDS Regional Training Centre Network (CHART).

Bain had raised the ire of the group after he offered expert opinion about the health risks of anal sex in the case of a Belizean man who was challenging the constitutionality of the buggery laws in that country.

The UWI dismissed the professor, but Bain sued the institution and secured an injunction blocking his release while the matter remains in court.

The controversy surrounding the Bain case led to demonstrations outside the UWI campus and increased concerns among several individuals and groups that there is a so-called ‘gay agenda’ to foist an acceptance of homosexuality on the Jamaican people.

Supporters of gay rights received further backlash when it came to light that human rights lobby Jamaicans For Justice crafted a sex-education programme taught in state-run children’s homes, but which contained material deemed “inappropriate” for some of the children to whom it was exposed.

In other poll findings, 82 per cent of Jamaicans said they believed homosexual men were not treated fairly by either the legal system or the police in Jamaica.

Ten per cent said they were treated the same, while eight per cent said they did not know.

However, 68 per cent said they should not have the same rights as others, while 26 per cent said they should, and six per cent did not know.

At the same time, 79 per cent said lesbians are not treated the same as others by the police and courts, 13 per cent believe they are treated equally, and eight per cent did not know.

But 65 per cent believe they should not have the same rights as other people under the Jamaican legal system, 30 per cent said they should, and five per cent did not know.

In 2008, in a previously published Johnson poll, it was revealed that 70 per cent of Jamaicans believe homosexuals and lesbians should not be entitled to the same basic rights and privileges enjoyed by heterosexual Jamaicans.

In another question related to homosexuality, 85 per cent said they believed transgender or cross-dressing persons were not treated the same as others. Eight per cent said they were treated the same, and seven per cent said they didn’t know.

Seventy-two per cent felt transgender persons should not have the same rights as other people have under the Jamaican legal system. Twenty-three per cent said they should have the same rights and five per cent said they didn’t know.

 

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http://www.hardcell.org.uk/en/playroom/scat/

SCAT

Scat / Things to know

Also known in personal ads and internet profiles as:

brown
dirty (as in ‘into dirty’)
scatology.
Hanky code

Brown worn:

on the left (wants to dump on you)
on the right (wants to be dumped on).
What is scat?

Scat involves playing with shit, smearing it on your or his body, and sometimes eating it. It can also mean just getting off on seeing another guy dump his load.

‘Farming’ is taking shit from public toilets to play with.

What’s the attraction?

Taboos around cleanliness couldn’t be more powerfully broken by shit play: it’s everything we’ve been told not to do since childhood.

Men can be drawn to scat precisely because it provokes such a strong negative reaction in others. Lovers of scat might get a kick from stepping over what for most people is the line between what’s OK and what’s too extreme. Scat is perhaps the ultimate in sex without limits or inhibitions.

Privately we’re often fascinated by our own bowel movements and excrement. Scat lets men explore and share this interest and enjoy a special bond with other lovers of shit.

For scat fans shit can excite all the senses with its warmth, texture, smell, colour and possibly taste. Just like contact with the intimate body fluids of cum, spit or piss, sex involving shit can be a sign of intense closeness as someone is offering something that’s come from deep inside them. And in an intense power play scene, nothing is more symbolic of degradation, humiliation and control than exposure to faeces.

Last review: 25/09/2014
Next review: 31/09/2017

 

 

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Secular values 2

 

 

 

Secular values

 

Normal  and positive secular behaviour

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