Studies have shown that liberal laws re: sodomy and homosexuality in general and access to HAART does not result in sustained reduction of HIV / AIDS among MSM yet Prime Minister Cameron and UNAIDS insist on this strategy. Researchers have identified some strategies which may work but are Prime Minister Cameron and UNAIDS articulating these strategies with the enthusiasm they show for legalizing sodomy ?
The BBC reports at : http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-15511081
30 October 2011 Last updated at 13:04 GMT
Cameron threat to dock some UK aid to anti-gay nations
David Cameron has threatened to withhold UK aid from governments that do not reform legislation banning homosexuality.
The UK prime minister said he raised the issue with some of the states involved at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Perth, Australia.
Human rights reform in the Commonwealth was one issue that leaders failed to reach agreement on at the summit.
Mr Cameron says those receiving UK aid should “adhere to proper human rights”…….
In the following video an official of UNAIDS claims that it is necessary to remove punitive laws against homosexuality in order to deal with the HIV / AIDS epidemic.
However researchers from the Centers for Disease Control state:
AIDS Behav. 2011 Apr;15 Suppl 1:S9-17.
Sexual health, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in the United States.
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton RD NE (E-35), Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. RWolitski@cdc.gov
The sexual health of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States is not getting better despite considerable social, political and human rights advances. Instead of improving, HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain disproportionately high among MSM and have been increasing for almost two decades. The disproportionate and worsening burden of HIV and other STIs among MSM requires an urgent re-assessment of what we have been doing as a nation to reduce these infections, how we have been doing it, and the scale of our efforts. A sexual health approach has the potential to improve our understanding of MSM’s sexual behavior and relationships, reduce HIV and STI incidence, and improve the health and well-being of MSM
Researchers provide some clue as to how HIV in MSM may be decreased:
Childhood sexual abuse is highly associated with HIV risk-taking behavior and infection among MSM in the EXPLORE Study.
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Previous studies have found high rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among US men who have sex with men (MSM). CSA history has been associated with a variety of negative effects later in life including behaviors that place MSM at greater risk for HIV acquisition and transmission. The present analysis is the first to examine the longitudinal association between CSA and HIV infection, unprotected anal sex, and serodiscordant unprotected anal sex, as well as mediators of these relationships among a large sample of HIV-uninfected MSM.
The EXPLORE Study was a behavioral intervention trial conducted in 6 US cities over 48 months with HIV infection as the primary efficacy outcome. Behavioral assessments were done every 6 months via confidential computerized assessments. Longitudinal regression models were constructed, adjusting for randomization arm, geographical location of study site, age at enrollment, education, and race/ethnicity.
Of the 4295 participants enrolled, 39.7% had a history of CSA. Participants with a history of CSA [adjusted hazards ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 1.69] were at increased risk for HIV infection over study follow-up. A significant association was seen between history of CSA and unprotected anal sex (adjusted odds ratio = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.36) and serodiscordant unprotected anal sex (adjusted odds ratio = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.43). Among participants reporting CSA, the EXPLORE intervention had no effect in reducing HIV infection rates. Participants reporting CSA were significantly more likely to have symptoms of depression and use nonprescription drugs.
A predictive relationship between a history of CSA and subsequent HIV infection was observed among this large sample of HIV-uninfected MSM. Findings indicate that HIV-uninfected MSM with CSA histories are at greater risk for HIV infection, report higher rates of HIV sexual risk behavior, and may derive less benefit from prevention programs. Future HIV prevention interventions should address the specific mental health concerns of MSM with a history of CSA.
Self-reported childhood sexual and physical abuse and adult HIV-risk behaviors and heavy drinking.
Washington State Department of Health, Olympia 98504-7812, USA. email@example.com
Although studies of clinical samples have identified links between childhood abuse, especially sexual abuse, and adult health-risk behaviors, the generalizability of these findings to the population and the relative importance of different types of abuse in men and women are not known.
To estimate the risk of self-reported adult HIV-risk behaviors and heavy drinking that is associated with self-reported childhood histories of physical and/or sexual abuse for men and women in a general-population sample, after controlling for age and education. A second objective is to determine whether, among women, early and chronic sexual abuse is associated with heightened risk compared to later or less extensive abuse.
A population-based telephone survey, the 1997 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), asked a representative sample of adults whether they had ever been physically or sexually abused in childhood, and if so, the age at first occurrence and number of occurrences. The survey also asked about levels of alcohol use and, for those under 50 years, about HIV-risk behaviors.
Three thousand four hundred seventy-three English-speaking non-institutionalized civilian adults in Washington State.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Self-reported HIV-risk behaviors in the past year and heavy drinking in the past month.
We identified associations between reported abuse history and each health-risk behavior that we examined. For women, early and chronic sexual abuse (occurring without nonsexual physical abuse) was associated with more than a 7-fold increase in HIV-risk behaviors (odds ratio [OR], 7.4; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.4 to 23.5); and any sexual abuse, combined with physical abuse, was associated with a 5-fold increase in these risk behaviors (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 2.2 to 11.5). For women, only combined sexual and physical abuse was associated with heavy drinking (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.2 to 16.9). Physical abuse alone was not associated with either health-risk behavior for women. For men, any sexual abuse was associated with an 8-fold increase in HIV-risk behaviors (OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 1.8 to 35.1). Physical abuse alone was associated with a 3-fold increase in risk of HIV-risk behaviors (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.9) and a similar increase in risk of heavy drinking (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.8 to 5.5). Although only 29% of the women and 19% of the men who were asked about HIV-risk behaviors reported any history of childhood abuse, these accounted for 51% and 50% of those reporting HIV-risk behaviors, respectively. For heavy drinking the corresponding figures were 25% of the women and 23% of the men reporting any abuse, who accounted for 45% and 33% of those reporting heavy drinking, respectively.
Efforts to prevent or remediate adult health-risk behaviors should consider the possibility of a history of childhood abuse, as one third to one half of those reporting HIV-risk behaviors or heavy drinking in a general-population survey also reported childhood abuse.
Child Abuse Negl. 2001 Apr;25(4):557-84.
Understanding childhood sexual abuse as a predictor of sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men: The Urban Men’s Health Study.
University of California, San Francisco, Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, 94105, USA.
The prevalence and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among men who have sex with men (MSM), and links with sexual risk are explored. A model linking CSA and sexual risk among MSM is proposed.
A telephone probability sample of urban MSM (n = 2881) was recruited and interviewed between November 1996 and February 1998. The interview covered numerous health issues, including history of sexual victimization.
One-fifth reported CSA, primarily by non-family perpetrators. Initial CSA experiences are characterized by high levels of force (43% involved physical force/weapons), and penetrative sex (78%; 46% reported attempted or actual anal intercourse). Such men are more likely than nevercoerced men to engage in high risk sex (unprotected anal intercourse with a non-primary partner or with a serodiscordant male). In multivariate analyses, the effect of childhood sexual coercion on sexual risk is mediated by substance use, patterns of sexual contacts, and partner violence, but not by adult sexual revictimization or by depression.
Findings are interpreted within the context of social learning theory and prior research on sexual risk-taking. The high risk for CSA among MSM, which can predispose such men to patterns of HIV sexual risk, warrants new approaches in HIV prevention.