The Descent of Man ? – Animal behaviour the reference for legislation of human conduct.

“Thinking themselves wise  they became fools”

Paul  of  Tarsus

26Then God said, “Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth,b and over all the creatures that move along the ground.”

27So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him;male and female he created them.

Genesis 1; 26,27

Should animal  behaviour serve  as  a reference  for  human  behaviour  ?

The American Supreme  Court  seems  to  think  so  as  it  is  said  to  have  used  

the  book  Biological Exuberance   written by  Canadian  Bruce  Bagemihl  to  

arrive  at  its  decision to remove sodomy  laws  in the USA.

In  Biological Exuberance  the  author   reviews scientific articles  about

homosexuality in non-human species.  

To  the  best  of  this  author’s  knowledge  the book  itself  is  not  peer-reviewed.

Books  are  rarely  subject  to peer-review,  the  usual  method  of  determining

whether  material  meets  the  standard  to  be  published  as  scientific  in journals.  

However  experts  in a  field  may  review a  book written about  material  in their  field.

This  area  of  work is  likely  to  be  new  so  there  may  not  be  many  or  any  experts.

On their  website  Amazon  publishes  an  editorial  review  and  several  user  

reviews.

The  author  is  said  to  be himself  homosexual.  A brief profile  may  be  seen  at :  

http://www.nndb.com/people/033/000044898/

Bruce Bagemihl

Born: ?

Gender: Male
Race or Ethnicity: White
Occupation: Scientist

Nationality: Canada
Executive summary: Biological Exuberance

Bruce Bagemihl is a biologist, linguist, and author. Best known for his critically acclaimed bookBiological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity, he has published widely on subjects ranging from zoology to cognitive ethnomusicology to queer theory. Previously on the faculty of the University of British Columbia and a consultant to Microsoft, he currently lives in Seattle.

Although gay himself, Bagemihl says he did not write his landmark book (which he spent nine years researching) simply because of his own sexual identity but rather because “the implications for humans are enormous.” As if to echo this sentiment, his work on animal homosexuality was cited in the U.S. Supreme Court case Lawrence v. Texas to demonstrate the naturalness of male-male sodomy. The law in question, which criminalized sodomy, was ruled unconstitutional.

University: PhD Linguistics, University of British Columbia (1988)

Microsoft Consultant

Author of books:
Biological Exuberance, Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity (1999)

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http://books.google.com.jm/books/about/Biological_exuberance.html?id=5EzaKnlxLLgC&redir_esc=y

Biological exuberance:

animal homosexuality and natural diversity

Front Cover
St. Martin’s Press, Mar 21, 2000 – 768 pages
Publishers Weekly Best Book
One of the New York Public Library’s “25 Books to Remember” for 1999

http://books.google.com.jm/books?id=5EzaKnlxLLgC&sitesec=reviews

Review: Biological Exuberance

Editorial Review – Kirkus Reviews

A scholarly, exhaustive, and utterly convincing refutation of the notion that human homosexuality is an aberration in nature. Biologist Bagemihl, who formerly taught cognitive science at the University of British Columbia, argues persuasively that our current understanding of biology and evolution is tainted by a heterosexually biased interpretation of animal behavior. He intends as his audience both a scientific and a general readership; he reaches both with his clear and straightforward presentation. Focusing primarily on mammals and birds, and citing only strictly documented case studies, he firmly establishes in part one of this work that homosexual and transgendered behaviors occur widely in the animal world. Bagemihl’s definition of homosexuality includes a diverse range of activities organized under five headings: courtship, affection, sex, pair-bonding, and parenting. He views the challenge before us now as the need to abandon a traditional point of view, whereby “same-sex activity is routinely described as being ‘forced’ on other animals” or is viewed as a substitute for heterosexual coupling that occurs only when no other (i.e., no heterosexual) mate can be found as the first choice of those concerned. A new understanding of animal relationships should therefore also recognize that not all animal sexual activity is aimed at reproduction—we must reconsider traditional explanations of the links between reproduction, evolution, and natural selection. Part two is organized as a thorough reference guide to homosexual behaviors in individual animals and birds, complete with extensive examples and rigorous footnotes. Bagemihl does realize that some among us will never be convinced that homosexuality occurs freely and frequently in nature. But his meticulously gathered, cogently delivered evidence will quash any arguments to the contrary.

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A  small  percentage  (approx. 3%)  of  Men who have  Sex  with Men  (MSM)   have  

been  reported  to   play  with  and  eat  stool “scat”.

This  activity  is  called  ”coprophagia”  and  is  not  uncommon  among  animals.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coprophagia

Coprophagia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with Coprographia.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed(May 2008)

A female Oriental Latrine Fly (Chrysomya megacephala) feeds on animal feces.

Coprophagia /kɒp.rə.ˈfeɪ.dʒi.ə/[1] or coprophagy is the consumption of feces, from the Greek κόπρος copros, “feces” and φαγεῖν phagein, “to eat”. Many animal species practice coprophagia as a matter of course; other species do not normally consume feces but may do so under unusual conditions. Coprophagy refers to many kinds of feces eating including eating feces of other species (heterospecifics), other individuals (allocoprophagy), or its own (autocoprophagy), those once deposited or taken directly from the anus.[2]

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