Dunce ?

 

http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/docs/2012/hiv-infections-2007-2010.pdf

The Latest CDC estimates of new HIV infections (HIV incidence) in the United States indicate that HIV remains a serious health problem, with an estimated 47,500 people becoming newly infected with the virus in the United States in 20101
.
The data are included in a new CDC report, Estimated HIV incidence among adults and adolescents in the United States,
2007–2010*, which includes new HIV incidence estimates for 2010 and updates previously published estimates for 2007 through 20092
.
HIV incidence has remained relatively stable at about 50,000 infections per year since the mid-1990s3
.According to the new analysis, there were 53,200 infections in 2007; 47,500 in 2008; 45,000 in 2009; and 47,500 in 2010. Certain groups, including African Americans, Latinos, and gay and bisexual men of all races/ethnicities, continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV.
The new analysis also finds two noteworthy trends among heavily affected populations: early signs of an
encouraging decrease in new HIV infections among black women (21 percent decrease between 2008 and 2010**),
and a troubling and continuing increase in new infections among young gay and bisexual men (22 percent increase
over the same time period).

 

HIV Infections by Route
of Transmission
Men Who Have Sex with Men
Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most heavily affected by HIV in the United States. CDC estimates that MSM represent approximately 4 percent of the male population in the United States4but male-to-male sex accounted for more than threefourths (78 percent) of new HIV infections among men and nearly two-thirds (63 percent) of all new infections in 2010 (29,800). White MSM continue to represent the largest number of new HIV infections among MSM (11,200), followed closely by black MSM (10,600) and Hispanic MSM (6,700).
The number of new infections among the youngest MSM (aged 13-24) increased 22 percent, from 7,200 infections in 2008 to 8,800 in 2010.
Young black MSM continue to bear the heaviest burden, accounting for more than half (55 percent) of new infections among young MSM (4,800). In fact, young black MSM now account for more new infections than any other subgroup by race/ethnicity, age, and sex.
There was a 12 percent increase in HIV incidence among MSM overall, from 26,700 in 2008 to 29,800 in 2010.
Although the analysis did not examine the factors driving the increases in young MSM, other studies indicate that individual risk behavior alone does not account for the disproportionate burden of HIV among young MSM. Other factors are likely at work, including:
higher prevalence of HIV among MSM, which leads to a greater risk of HIV exposure with each sexual encounter; the high proportion of young MSM (especially young MSM of color) who are unaware of their infection, which increases the risk of unknowingly transmitting the virus to others; stigma and homophobia, which deter some from
seeking HIV prevention services; barriers, such as lack of insurance and concerns about confidentiality, that result in less access to testing, care, and antiretroviral treatment; and high rates of some STDs, which can facilitate HIV transmission. Additionally, many young
MSM may underestimate their personal risk for HIV

 

http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-204_162-57591206/medical-groups-express-support-for-doma-decision/

By

MICHELLE CASTILLO /

CBS NEWS/ June 26, 2013, 5:56 PM

Medical groups express support for DOMA decision

Same-sex marriage supporter Lindsey Freitas waves an American flag as she celebrates on the corner of Market and Castro on June 26, 2013 in San Francisco, Calif. The Supreme Court of the United States struck down the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) and ruled that supporters of California's ban on gay marriage, Proposition 8, could not defend it before the Supreme Court.

Same-sex marriage supporter Lindsey Freitas waves an American flag as she celebrates on the corner of Market and Castro on June 26, 2013 in San Francisco, Calif. The Supreme Court of the United States struck down the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) and ruled that supporters of California’s ban on gay marriage, Proposition 8, could not defend it before the Supreme Court. / JUSTIN SULLIVAN/GETTY IMAGES

Three of the leading U.S. medical associations — the American Medical Association (AMA), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Psychiatric Association (APA) — applauded the Supreme Court’s decisions to overturn a key provision of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) and dismiss a case over California’s same-sex marriage ban, Proposition 8.

“The U.S. Supreme Court’s rulings today, overturning the Defense of Marriage Act and leaving in place a California federal court ruling striking down a ban on same-sex marriage, will help eliminate health disparities in same-sex households by ensuring all households are afforded the same health care rights,” Dr. Ardis D. Hoven, the president of the AMA, said in a statement to CBSNews.com.

Play VIDEO

Impact of Supreme Court striking down DOMA

“Same-sex households will now be eligible to share the benefits of employer-based health insurance and the authority to make medical decisions on behalf of a spouse. This is a welcome step for improving health care access and delivery,” Hoven added.

The U.S. Supreme Court made the 5-4 decision to overturn DOMA after they found a provision that denied federal benefits, including Social Security benefits and health insurance, to same-sex couples was unconstitutional.

The case was first brought about by Edie Windsor, an 83-year-old lesbian who sued the U.S. government. Windsor had married her late partner, Thea Spyer, after four decades of being together in 2007. When Spyer died in 2009 and left Windsor her estate, the IRS said Windsor owed $363,053 in taxes because they did not recognize her marriage. She sued for discriminatory treatment under DOMA.

All federal benefits, including Medicare and Medicaid, are now open. In addition, same-sex couples in states that recognize their marriage can now qualify for the Family and Medical Leave Act, which gives covered employees 12 work weeks of unpaid leave in a 12-month period for various reasons including the birth of a child, receiving a child through adoption or foster care and for caring for their spouse or child who has a serious health condition. Whether or not states recognize these rights, however, is another matter.

Rev. Michael Schuenemeyer, the United Church of Christ executive and minister for LGBT concerns, told CBSNews.com that even though Wednesday’s decision opened the door up to health benefits for same-sex couples, there still was a long way to go.

“I think we’re going to know more over the coming months as people sort this out,” Schenemeyer said. “President Obama said they are pouring over the policies so that same sex couples should get the same benefits and equal access under the law.”

Schenemeyer advised that same-sex couples get legal advice so they are educated about what their rights are and report any cases of discrimination that they may run into.

Early in April, the American Academy of Pediatrics came out in support for civil marriage rights for all LGBT couples as well as for allowing willing and capable adults to foster and adoptive parents regardless of their sexual orientation.

“Today, the U.S. Supreme Court issued two historic decisions affirming the right of same-gender couples to marry,” Dr. Thomas K. McInerny, the president of the AAP, said in a statement to CBSNews.com. “The American Academy of Pediatrics has advocated that civil marriage for same-gender couples is the best way to guarantee benefits and security for their children. If a child has two loving and capable parents who choose to create a permanent bond, it’s in the best interest of their children that legal institutions allow them to do so.”

Play VIDEO

Obama tweets on DOMA decision: Love is love

The AAP had previously said that stable relationships, financial security, social support and access to health care were paramount for the well-being of children. The organization added that scientific evidence shows that there is no “cause-and-effect” between the sexual orientation of parents and their children’s well-being.

“If a child has 2 living and capable parents who choose to create a permanent bond by way of civil marriage, it is in the best interests of their child(ren) that legal and social institutions allow and support them to do so, irrespective of their sexual orientation,” the AAP wrote in its initial statement. “If two parents are not available to the child, adoption or foster parenting remain acceptable options to provide a loving home for a child and should be available without regard to the sexual orientation of the parent(s).”

The APA had signed amicus briefs with the AMA, AAP, and the American Psychological Association. which stated that homosexuality is a normal way to express sexuality, and that most gay, lesbian and bisexual adults do not choose their sexual orientation. In addition, evidence concluded that gay and lesbian people form stable and committed relationships that are equal to heterosexual ones, and they are no less fit to raise children than heterosexual couples. The children do not suffer any additional psychological harm from being raised by a same-sex couple.

“The APA has a long history of supporting freedom in sexual orientation and the rights of same sex couples,” Dr. Jeffrey Lieberman, APA president, said in a statement emailed to CBSNews.com. “By withholding benefits or marriage rights from same sex couples the government unfairly stigmatizes an important part of the American population.”

© 2013 CBS Interactive Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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