” Fools rush in where wise men never go”
According to the American Psychology Association the cause of particular sexual orientations are complex and multi-factorial
What causes a person to have a particular sexual orientation?
There is no consensus among scientists about the exact reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual, gay, or lesbian orientation. Although much research has examined the possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, no findings have emerged that permit scientists to conclude that sexual orientation is determined by any particular factor or factors. Many think that nature and nurture both play complex roles; most people experience little or no sense of choice about their sexual orientation.
What we do know is that the biology of anal penetration and the dynamic of role reversal in intimate behaviour among MSM accounts for 98 % of the difference in HIV between MSM and heterosexuals. We also know that HIV epidemics are expanding among MSM including those in Australia.
Increasing HIV diagnoses in Australia among men who have sex with men correlated with the growing number not taking antiretroviral therapy.
School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. J.Murray@unsw.edu.au
Australia has experienced rising notifications of HIV diagnoses despite widely available combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). New HIV diagnoses have also been younger than the average age of those living with HIV. We investigated the degree to which several risk factors could explain this rise in notifications and the younger age profile.
Numbers and ages of men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV in Australia from 1983 to 2007 were calculated from notifications of HIV diagnoses and deaths. We compared the trend over time as well as the average ages of MSM newly diagnosed with HIV infection from 1998 to 2007 with those for: notifications of gonorrhoea and syphilis, total MSM living with HIV infection, and the component not on CART.
The percentage of younger MSM not taking CART has increased since 1998 (aged <30 years P<0.001; 30-39 years P=0.004). The trend of new HIV diagnoses was most significantly correlated with the total number of MSM living with HIV infection and the sector not taking CART (P<0.0001). Based on similarity of average ages, MSM living with HIV infection and not taking CART was the best predictor of the increasing trend in new HIV diagnoses (99.9999% probability, Akaike information criterion).
Our analyses suggest MSM living with HIV infection and not taking CART could be the source of the increase in HIV infections. Consequently, greater CART enrolment should decrease HIV incidence, especially in younger MSM.
Global epidemiology of HIV infection in men who have sex with men
Chris Beyrer et al.
In 2012, HIV epidemics in MSM are expanding in countries of all incomes. Available incidence data from Thai, Chinese and Kenyan samples of MSM suggest those epidemics are in rapid expansion phases.
HIV infection rates among MSM are substantially higher than those of general population adult males in every epidemic assessed. A comprehensive review of the burden of HIV disease in MSM worldwide found that pooled HIV prevalence ranged from a low of 3% in the Middle East and North Africa to a high of 25.4% of MSM in the Caribbean.
Biological and behavioral factors make the dynamics of the MSM epidemic different than for general populations.
o The disproportionate HIV disease burden in MSM is explained largely by the high peract and per-partner transmission probability of HIV transmission in receptive anal sex.
Modeling suggests that If the transmission probably of receptive anal sex was similar
to that associated with unprotected vaginal sex, five year cumulative HIV incidence in
MSM would be reduced by 80-90%.
o Many MSM practice both insertive and receptive roles in sexual intercourse, which
helps HIV spread in this population. Were MSM limited to one role, HIV incidence in
this population over five years would be reduced 19-55% in high-prevalence
o Taking both factors (per act transmission probability and role versatility) into account explains 98% of the difference between HIV epidemics among MSM and heterosexual populations—behavioral differences account for 2% of the difference.
Below Mr. Rudd speaks drivel about persons being “born that way”.
For the sake of argument Mr. Rudd show note that persons with sickle cell which results , demonstrably in increase morbidity and mortality, are indeed born that way does that mean that Mr. Rudd will accept sickle cell anaemia as normal.
Australia election: Kevin Rudd defends gay-marriage stance
Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd: “If you think homosexuality is an unnatural condition, then frankly I cannot agree with you based on any element of the science”
Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd has delivered a strong defence of gay marriage on live television, days before the 7 September election.
In a Q&A session on ABC News, Mr Rudd said he backed gay marriage after “years of reflection in good Christian conscience”.
His defence ignited debate and was praised by gay advocacy groups.
Latest polls show Mr Rudd’s Labor party trailing eight points behind the Liberal-National opposition coalition.
Monday’s polls also put opposition leader Tony Abbott – who opposes gay marriage – ahead of Mr Rudd as preferred prime minister for the first time.
Mr Rudd was questioned about the issue by Christian pastor Matt Prater during a live Q&A session.
Mr Prater asked Mr Rudd how he could support gay marriage as a Christian. “If you call yourself a Christian, why don’t you believe the words of Jesus in the Bible?” he said.
Mr Rudd responded: “Well mate, if I was going to have that view, the Bible also says that slavery is a natural condition.”
“Because St Paul said in the New Testament, slaves be obedient to your masters. And therefore we should have all fought for the Confederacy in the US Civil War.”
The fundamental principle of the New Testament was universal love, Mr Rudd added.
“If we get obsessed with a particular definition of that through a form of sexuality, then I think we are missing the centrality of what the Gospel… is all about.”
Mr Rudd, who was previously opposed to gay marriage, changed his position in May.
Mr Prater said Christian voters were disillusioned with Mr Rudd “chopping and changing [his] beliefs just to get a popular vote”.
However, Mr Rudd said his decision came after a long period of reflection, and was based on his “informed conscience and Christian conscience”.
Tony Abbott has described himself as “an opponent of gay marriage”, and drew controversy on 14 August when he appeared to describe same-sex marriage as “the fashion of the moment”.
Asked about the issue on Tuesday, Mr Abbott said: “Everyone knows where I stand on this.”