Secularism and the rubbish of evolution

Secularism is uniquely  the most foolish of  human philosophies primarily because  those  who  follow  it claim exceptional intelligence  and  learning. 

The  significant underpinning  of secularism is  Darwin’s theory of  evolution it is  supposed to  prove  that  there  is  no  need  for  God.

Whilst  Darwin himself was a brilliant  scientist who, in the context of  his day, advanced human understanding the extrapolation of his observation and claims and are yet  to  be justified.

Classic  evolution claims  that  through small  simple  variations  living organisms  change into  new  species  and  that  in the  limit  all  life  arose  from a  single  organism.

One example  of  erroneous interpretation and extrapolation is  the beak of  the finches Darwin observed in the Galapagos island.  The  beaks did  change  but  the  reason was related to  the fundamental concept of what a living  organism is i.e a product of information technology.  The  finches  beaks changed  and also reverted as  a result  of  programming  and  adaptation  in the  expression  of  the  programming  in response  to  changes  in the environment.

 

Hudson River Audubon Society of Westchester
A New York Chapter of the National Audubon Society   discusses  the “evolution”  of  the  Finches  Darwin saw  in  the  Galapagos  Islands  at : http://www.hras.org/sw/sw11-04.html

An extract  of  the  discussion  follows :

ScienceWatch

Beak Variation in Darwin’s Finches: It’s in the Genes

    Darwin’s finches are described in every biology textbook as a classic example of evolution in action. They comprise 14 closely related species that differ in beak shapes and sizes and live on the Galapagos islands. The group includes ground-dwelling birds (Geospiza) that feed on different sized seeds or cactus flowers and tree-dwelling birds (Camarynchus) that feed on different sized insects or types of fruit, and each beak is adapted for a specialized feeding task. Cataloging the birds he collected in 1835 helped Darwin formulate his theory of evolution because he realized that all the finch species arose from one ancestral form that had adapted to a variety of feeding conditions. Today the finches are considered a perfect example of adaptive radiation, in which one species diversifies into many to exploit a wide range of habitats. “

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Audubon Societies  are  non-profit  American  Organization with interest  in  bird  conservation

Although  Darwin’s  Finches  are  generally  regarded  as a  classic  example  of  evolution the  following  report  by Abzhanov et  al  suggests  that  the  alterations  in  the Finches’  beaks  are  due  to  variations  in  gene  expression (Bmp4 (bone morphogenetic protein 4)) .

Science 3 September 2004:
Vol. 305 no. 5689 pp. 1462-1465
DOI: 10.1126/science.1098095
  • Report

Bmp4 and Morphological Variation of Beaks in Darwin’s Finches

  1. Arhat Abzhanov, Meredith ProtasB. Rosemary Grant,Peter R. Grant andClifford J. Tabin1,*

+ Author Affiliations

  1. 1 Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
  2. 2 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.
  1. * To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Abstract

Darwin’s finches are a classic example of species diversification by natural selection. Their impressive variation in beak morphology is associated with the exploitation of a variety of ecological niches, but its developmental basis is unknown. We performed a comparative analysis of expression patterns of various growth factors in species comprising the genus Geospiza. We found that expression of Bmp4 in the mesenchyme of the upper beaks strongly correlated with deep and broad beak morphology. When misexpressed in chicken embryos, Bmp4 caused morphological transformations paralleling the beak morphology of the large ground finch G. magnirostris.

Gene  expression  again Bmp4 (bone morphogenetic protein 4) is  also  the  cause  of  the  change  in  the  jaws  African  fishes  known  as  cichlid  as  shown  in  the  following  review

Genetic and developmental basis of cichlid trophic diversity

R C Albertson1 and T D Kocher2

  1. 1Department of Cytokine Biology, The Forsyth Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
  2. 2Hubbard Center for Genome Studies, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA

Correspondence: RC Albertson, Department of Cytokine Biology, The Forsyth Institute, 140 The Fenway, Boston, MA 02115, USA (as of 21 August 2006, Department of Biology, Syracuse University, 130 College Place, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA). E-mail: CAlbertson@forsyth.org (as of 21 August 2006, realbert@syr.edu)

Received 22 November 2005; Accepted 4 April 2006; Published online 12 July 2006.

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Abstract

Cichlids have undergone extensive evolutionary modifications of their feeding apparatus, making them an ideal model to study the factors that underlie craniofacial diversity. Recent studies have provided critical insights into the molecular mechanisms that have contributed to the origin and maintenance of cichlid trophic diversity. We review this body of work, which shows that the cichlid jaw is regulated by a few genes of major additive effect, and is composed of modules that have evolved under strong divergent selection. Adaptive variation in cichlid jaw shape is evident early in development and is associated with allelic variation in and expression of bmp4. Modulating this growth factor in the experimentally tractable zebrafish model reproduces natural variation in cichlid jaw shape, supporting a role for bmp4 in craniofacial evolution. These data demonstrate the utility of the cichlid jaw as a model for studying the genetic and developmental basis of evolutionary changes in craniofacial morphology.

Keywords:

cichlid, adaptive radiation, jaw, bmp4, genetic architecture, cranial neural crest

The above  abstracts  indicate  that  change  in morphology –  appearance / form – may  be  due  to  variation  in gene  expression  and  does  not necessarily  indicate  a  change  in genetic  make-up .

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