Secularism is uniquely the most foolish of human philosophies primarily because those who follow it claim exceptional intelligence and learning.
The significant underpinning of secularism is Darwin’s theory of evolution it is supposed to prove that there is no need for God.
Whilst Darwin himself was a brilliant scientist who, in the context of his day, advanced human understanding the extrapolation of his observation and claims and are yet to be justified.
Classic evolution claims that through small simple variations living organisms change into new species and that in the limit all life arose from a single organism.
One example of erroneous interpretation and extrapolation is the beak of the finches Darwin observed in the Galapagos island. The beaks did change but the reason was related to the fundamental concept of what a living organism is i.e a product of information technology. The finches beaks changed and also reverted as a result of programming and adaptation in the expression of the programming in response to changes in the environment.
Hudson River Audubon Society of Westchester
A New York Chapter of the National Audubon Society discusses the “evolution” of the Finches Darwin saw in the Galapagos Islands at : http://www.hras.org/sw/sw11-04.html
An extract of the discussion follows :
Beak Variation in Darwin’s Finches: It’s in the Genes
Darwin’s finches are described in every biology textbook as a classic example of evolution in action. They comprise 14 closely related species that differ in beak shapes and sizes and live on the Galapagos islands. The group includes ground-dwelling birds (Geospiza) that feed on different sized seeds or cactus flowers and tree-dwelling birds (Camarynchus) that feed on different sized insects or types of fruit, and each beak is adapted for a specialized feeding task. Cataloging the birds he collected in 1835 helped Darwin formulate his theory of evolution because he realized that all the finch species arose from one ancestral form that had adapted to a variety of feeding conditions. Today the finches are considered a perfect example of adaptive radiation, in which one species diversifies into many to exploit a wide range of habitats. “
Audubon Societies are non-profit American Organization with interest in bird conservation
Although Darwin’s Finches are generally regarded as a classic example of evolution the following report by Abzhanov et al suggests that the alterations in the Finches’ beaks are due to variations in gene expression (Bmp4 (bone morphogenetic protein 4)) .
Vol. 305 no. 5689 pp. 1462-1465
Bmp4 and Morphological Variation of Beaks in Darwin’s Finches
+ Author Affiliations
- 1 Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
- 2 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.
- * To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Darwin’s finches are a classic example of species diversification by natural selection. Their impressive variation in beak morphology is associated with the exploitation of a variety of ecological niches, but its developmental basis is unknown. We performed a comparative analysis of expression patterns of various growth factors in species comprising the genus Geospiza. We found that expression of Bmp4 in the mesenchyme of the upper beaks strongly correlated with deep and broad beak morphology. When misexpressed in chicken embryos, Bmp4 caused morphological transformations paralleling the beak morphology of the large ground finch G. magnirostris.
Gene expression again Bmp4 (bone morphogenetic protein 4) is also the cause of the change in the jaws African fishes known as cichlid as shown in the following review
Genetic and developmental basis of cichlid trophic diversity
- 1Department of Cytokine Biology, The Forsyth Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
- 2Hubbard Center for Genome Studies, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA
Correspondence: RC Albertson, Department of Cytokine Biology, The Forsyth Institute, 140 The Fenway, Boston, MA 02115, USA (as of 21 August 2006, Department of Biology, Syracuse University, 130 College Place, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA). E-mail: CAlbertson@forsyth.org (as of 21 August 2006, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Received 22 November 2005; Accepted 4 April 2006; Published online 12 July 2006.
Cichlids have undergone extensive evolutionary modifications of their feeding apparatus, making them an ideal model to study the factors that underlie craniofacial diversity. Recent studies have provided critical insights into the molecular mechanisms that have contributed to the origin and maintenance of cichlid trophic diversity. We review this body of work, which shows that the cichlid jaw is regulated by a few genes of major additive effect, and is composed of modules that have evolved under strong divergent selection. Adaptive variation in cichlid jaw shape is evident early in development and is associated with allelic variation in and expression of bmp4. Modulating this growth factor in the experimentally tractable zebrafish model reproduces natural variation in cichlid jaw shape, supporting a role for bmp4 in craniofacial evolution. These data demonstrate the utility of the cichlid jaw as a model for studying the genetic and developmental basis of evolutionary changes in craniofacial morphology.
cichlid, adaptive radiation, jaw, bmp4, genetic architecture, cranial neural crest
The above abstracts indicate that change in morphology – appearance / form – may be due to variation in gene expression and does not necessarily indicate a change in genetic make-up .