“sometimes the role of the intelligent man is simply to point out the obvious”
……. George Orwell….
Gay Pride – France
AIDS. 2013 Nov 13;27(17):2665-78. doi: 10.1097/01.aids.0000432449.30239.fe.
The increase in global HIV epidemics in MSM.
Beyrer C1, Sullivan P, Sanchez J, Baral SD, Collins C, Wirtz AL, Altman D, Trapence G, Mayer K.
Epidemics of HIV in MSM continue to expand in most low, middle, and upper income countries in 2013 and rates of new infection have been consistently high among young MSM. Current prevention and treatment strategies are insufficient for this next wave of HIV spread. We conducted a series of comprehensive reviews of HIV prevalence and incidence, risks for HIV, prevention and care, stigma and discrimination, and policy and advocacy options. The high per act transmission probability of receptive anal intercourse, sex role versatility among MSM, network level effects, and social and structural determinants play central roles in disproportionate disease burdens. HIV can be transmitted through large MSM networks at great speed. Molecular epidemiologic data show marked clustering of HIV in MSM networks, and high proportions of infections due to transmission from recent infections. Prevention strategies that lower biological risks, including those using antiretrovirals, offer promise for epidemic control, but are limited by structural factors including, discrimination, criminalization, and barriers to healthcare. Subepidemics, including among racial and ethnic minority MSM in the United States and UK, are particularly severe and will require culturally tailored efforts. For the promise of new and combined bio-behavioral interventions to be realized, clinically competent healthcare is necessary and community leadership, engagement, and empowerment are likely to be key. Addressing the expanding epidemics of HIV in MSM will require continued research, increased resources, political will, policy change, structural reform, community engagement, and strategic planning and programming, but it can and must be done.